Energy needs are all activities that consume rather heat or electricity and are necessary for the daily functioning of households. Energy is very important for modern lifestyles and social inclusion: it is essential for education, health, safety and well-being. Today, energy constitutes the basic necessity for all households. However, research on energy demand is a complex area that covers physical availability of energy sources, income and housing conditions, as well as individual and social factors in households. This is an important and complex issue that is part of the current EU energy policy, described, inter alia, in the latest package of solutions entitled “Clean energy for all Europeans”, prepared by the European Commission in 2019.?On the basis of theoretical findings regarding the issue of human needs and empirical research of households, there has been developed a research concept enabling the study of the place of energy demand in the hierarchy of household needs. It takes into account the conclusions from the analysis of energy demand in households taking into consideration consumption, sources and energy commodities used, as well as the results of public opinion surveys. The study, including statistical data analysis and public opinion reports, was conducted in regards to the Polish market.?The proposed model presents the determinants of energy demand for households in the context of their place in the hierarchy of needs by A.H. Maslow.