The problem of regional specialization as the most important factor in the economic development requires close attention, since it largely depends on improving the efficiency of public production. The article deals with the conditions for implementing the possibilities of regional specialization in the agricultural sector. To them the authors refer general market conditions for the functioning of the agricultural economy – a feature of the consumer’s assessment of food products, conjunctural macroeconomic fluctuations as well as structural factors – the possibility (or lack thereof) of product differentiation, entry into and exit from the product market. The article describes conditions specific to the agricultural sector that lead producers to take the role of “price takers”. To overcome them for the purpose of ensuring successful regional specialization in the agricultural sector it is necessary to implement a number of conditions related to the availability of production resources, the nature of product demand, general conditions for the functioning of agricultural enterprises.