The modern world is on the verge of the fourth industrial revolution. The massive introduction of information and communication technologies has contributed to the formation of a new type of economy – the digital one. The digital economy is an economy that is based on the introduction of innovative digital technologies. Today, the share of the digital economy is from 15% to 30% of the traditional one. One of the leaders in the development of the digital economy is the financial sector, which ranks second after telecommunication companies in introducing modern innovative digital technologies. Today, a new development direction has been formed in the financial sector, which is called Fintech. This direction is a fusion of financial and digital technologies, which allow to form not just innovative banking products but to form completely new types of financial institutions, providing both innovative forms of management and new channels of interaction with clients. One of the innovative forms within the Fintech area is the emergence of challenger banks, which represent a completely new organizational form of a financial institution, to a greater extent based on the technological approach to building a company based on the introduction of digital technologies, and on its basis, the possibilities of providing financial services are considered. The digital forms of financial institutions are analyzed in this article, various types of their classifications are examined, the types of neobanks are defined, and approaches to their formation are considered. A full-scale analysis of the global market of challenger banks is carried out in this study, both quantitative and financial indicators are defined that determine the number of neobanks in the world, the pace of development, quantitative indicators of the client base, as well as the size of their assets. The Russian market is paid special attention in this study, its specificity is analyzed compared to global trends in the implementation of neobanks, the nature of the interaction of challenger banks with traditional financial institutions is determined, the dynamics of the introduction of neobanks in the Russian financial sector are analyzed, their financial indicators are examined, service delivery formats in innovative financial institutions are considered. Based on the analysis, the prospects for further implementation and use of neobanks in the Russian financial sector are determined.