Modern tasks of increasing the competitiveness of the national economy, ensuring the country's economic security, and moving the economy to a new level of technological development actualize the issues of improving the labor protection system and its development in the framework of modern world trends. Work-related traumatism and occupational diseases result in loss of working time, personnel problems, and significantly reduce labor productivity. In the article, the authors use statistical data, analytical and law enforcement materials of the Federal service for Labor and Employment to consider the types of job-related accidents, to analyze the causes and conditions of traumatism and mortality. The authors conclude that it is necessary to focus on the problems of developing the system of preventing work-relayed traumatism and occupational diseases, forming the interest of the parties of social and labor relations in meeting the requirements of regulatory documents on labor protection, carrying out activities aimed at improving working conditions, protecting the life and health of employees. The transition from the remuneration model of occupational safety and health management and payments for harmful working conditions to a modern system of occupational risk management will make it possible to implement preventive approaches to preserving the employees’ health in the workplace, to reduce financial losses of businesses associated with unfavorable working conditions, to increase labor productivity and production efficiency in general.