This article deals with the theoretical and legal foundations, current status and problems of public administration in the field of environmental protection and nature management in the Russian Federation. Special attention is paid to the importance of state policy measures in the environmental sphere. The authors identify the difficulties of interaction between the Federal and regional authorities in implementing a unified environmental policy, and propose? measures to improve their integration and strengthen vertical cooperation between the center and the subjects. Also the authors pay attention to the problems of insufficient economic incentives for environmental protection. The article suggests the possibility of borrowing foreign experience of forms of economic incentives in the field of environmental protection, which have proven their effectiveness. The conclusion is made about the need to improve the legislative regulation of the environmental sphere of the Russian Federation. The authors have developed prospects for the improving of environmental policy of the Russian Federation in the coming years. During the research there were used such methods as analysis, synthesis, classification, comparison, and forecasting.