The paper deals with the assessment of the impact of the retirement age increasing on demographic processes in Russia and its Arctic territories. The aim of the research is the consideration of the question whether the effect of the change in the retirement age for Russia on the whole and the Russian Arctic in particular is justified from the standpoint of demographics. There are the following objectives: 1) to assess the number of able-bodied population of Russia taking into account changes in retirement age; 2) to evaluate medical and demographic reserves and the validity of the retirement age increasing for the Russian Arctic’s population. The trivariant long-term forecast of the number of the able-bodied population that points out the feasibility of the retirement age increasing for Russia on the whole from the standpoint of economic demands has been formulated. It has been determined that Russia is characterized by steady growth in life expectancy, which is the basis of retirement age increasing. The indicators of the retirement age in Russia which will be fixed by 2028 as a whole conform to European standards. The comparison of actual values of average age of death of the Russian Arctic’s population with the retirement age and trends research points out the baselessness of pension age increase for the residents of Arctic regions. These areas are characterized by low medical and demographic reserves insufficient to increase the retirement age.