The paper discusses benefits of international cooperation in science and technology between the countries with different challenges and tasks of S&T development. It provides feasibility analysis of strengthening S&T cooperation between the Russian Federation and the Argentine Republic. Each of the national R&D systems has own strengths, which can offset weaknesses of the other’s. While Argentinean researchers can benefit from access to capital and advanced infrastructure, the Russian science can attenuate the lack of highly qualified human resources. The study of joint projects and publications has identified the most promising areas for cooperation, including physics, medicine, space research, biotechnology, climate and ecology. At the moment intensity of bilateral scientific cooperation is quite low. The Russia’s national ‘Science’ project must be seen as a unique window of opportunity to push mutually advantageous cooperation in the 5 coming years.