This paper presents the main characteristics of Lake Baikal, which is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Various environmental problems that harm the lake are considered. Forest cover problems due to "black loggers" and fires caused by natural or human causes. Problems with the fauna of the lake due to poachers hunting mainly for omul and grayling. Pollution problems due to the improper cleaning system of nearby enterprises, the lack of special boxes accepting garbage from other vessels, as well as the activity of tourists near the lake. The discussion includes measures taken by the state to protect the lake and the surrounding territories, as well as social actions related to protection. Further, a system for the protection and restoration of Lake Baikal with specific steps and a sequence of problem solving was developed and presented.